The high level of automatic control for an unmanned boat allows for more complicated operation modes, e.g. maneuvering in a crowded navigation areas and limitations on maneuvers. It also makes it possible to increase the speeds of path-planning and path-following.
The most of existing control systems operate in a remote control mode and only certain elements of the tasks can be performed autonomously without an operator’s intervention. This situation is caused by using the classical approaches in control system’s design. They can’t ensure an acceptable solution of the set task.
The control system for the boat robot system is based on the modern nonlinear control theory that allows for synthesis of the new types of controllers for multiply connected nonlinear multidimensional objects operating under the conditions of mobile obstacles and disturbances. Together with the intelligent path-planning algorithms such a controller can serve as a foundation for creation of robot systems based on surface ships.
The Proposed Approach to Design of Unmanned Boats
In development of automatic control systems for AUV we keep the following design steps.
- Mathematical model design;
- Development of control laws and algorithms;
e implementation of the automatic control algorithms.
Building Mathematical Model
In the general case the boat moves in a sea environment with its parameters constantly changing, which affects the magnitude of actions of the environment on the boat. These actions lead to changes of the hydrodynamic characteristics of the boat and have to be accounted by its mathematical model to a certain degree.
During the boat’s motion its underwater part is under action of hydrodynamic forces, while its above-water part is influenced by the aerodynamic forces.
Development of Control Laws and Algorithms
A unique patented control algorithm calculates the necessary reference values for the actuators during the mission.
Owing to application of position-path approach to the boat control and usage of intelligent methods of path planning and determining the behavior strategies, the following results can be achieved:
- Extending the functional capabilities of the unmanned boats following complicated trajectories with various speeds at presence of stationary and mobile obstacles;
- Increasing of accuracy of control systems by using neuro-synergetic control methods and nonlinear approach for aggregation of the navigation data;
- Increasing the unmanned boat’s speed by using speed-optimal control systems.
- Development of a unified intelligent integrated control system for the unmanned boat operating in uncertain environments with mobile and stationary obstacles based on synergetic and neural networking approach to organization of the behavior strategies and performing the motions for conduction of a wide spectrum of research works.
Development of an Intelligent Path-Planning System
During its mission the unmanned boat uses its sensors to detect obstacles located on its motion path and not accounted by is program-mission. The intelligent planner based on the data from sensors forms the new motion path ensuring safe passing of the obstructed area and returns it to the original path set in the mission program.
Hardware-Software Implementation of Automatic Control System
Before proceeding to the selection of the specific elements of the control systems CS for the Unmanned Boat (UB) it is necessary to define the main performance criteria for the system. Based on these criteria the requirements for selection of onboard equipment are formed.
The main task of the control system is performing control in the mode of automatic operation of the unmanned boat, ensuring boat’s sailing safety, motion control avoiding the marine obstacles. It is possible to highlight the following criteria common for all the control system’s control units:
– reliability ensuring uninterrupted operation under the set conditions;
– task completion accuracy;
– minimal size and mass.
Based on this data the requirements to the hardware implementation of the unmanned boat’s control system are formed:
– replaceability allowing for a simple replacement of a failed unit by a new one;
– using the mostly standardized elements in development of control system’s units;
– flexibility assuming presence of redundant resources (computational capacities, input/output channels, extended capabilities of the software interface);
– compact location of various electronic units in the body of the control system block.
Software for the onboard computer is developed using a sophisticated operating system with a modular structure. This allows for creation of various scenarios data analysis. The systems can be modified using the modern development tools.
Results of Work
- full nonlinear mathematical model of the motion of unmanned boat or ship;
- analysis of the plant’s controllability, stability analysis of the whole control system;
- software and algorithms for the control system;
- hardware units for control and planning;
- modeling and training system and the results of mathematical and semi-natural modeling;
- performing testing;
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