A REVIEW OF METHODS AND APPROACHES TO SYNTHESIS OF VEHICLES CONTROL SYSTEMS
Chapter 1 presents analysis of problems in the sphere of motion control systems design. One of the most important of them is the problem controlling nonlinear multiply connected systems autonomously operating under the conditions of uncertain parameters and disturbances at presence of stationary and mobile obstacles.
The chapter considers full motion models of vehicles such as aircrafts and wheeled carts. The possibilities of model simplifications are considered and the models structure is presented reflecting their multiple connectivity and nonlinearity. There is a survey of existing methods synthesis of laws and control systems for dynamic objects described by the considered motion equation. Their advantages and drawbacks are discussed.
ANALYSIS OF MATHEMATICAL MODELS AND SYNTHESIS OF GENERALIZED POSITION-PATH CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES
Solution of control tasks for various types of objects requires certain stages in the design process. The first one is creation of specific mathematical models describing the real object or a process with a different degree of adequacy. The most important qualitative features of the control plant (such as controllability) should be researched. The vehicle’s controllability is studied based on mathematical models of dynamics and kinematics of the vehicle and manipulating modules (MM) considered in chapter 1. The MM dynamics models in the space of proposed manifolds are presented.
A vehicle path generation procedure is presented. These paths are to satisfy the preset vehicle motion tasks. The general problem statement is presented for synthesis of position-path control laws and a solution procedure is proposed. The position-path control laws are considered with different simplifications on the mathematical model of the vehicle’s motion.
The structures and solution algorithms are presented in the form of closed-loop systems. The stability conditions for the generated paths are presented. The procedures are given for estimation of the vehicle’s energy capacity and of the root mean square value of deviation from the preset path.
VEHICLES CONTROL IN A PRIORI NON-FORMALIZED ENVIRONMENTS
Structural and algorithmic solutions for control of autonomous mobile robots are presented for motion in obstructed environments under the conditions of uncertainty. The point obstacles are transformed into repellers by means of the synthesized controls. The synthesis and modeling results are presented.
An approach to organization of vehicle’s motion in a priori non formalized environments is considered.
The novelty of the proposed solutions is in introduction of a bifurcational parameter for formation of the unstable motion modes and transition from one unstable state to the other. The proposed approach reduces the requirements to intelligent technologies of planning and control so that preliminary mapping or complica1ted navigation systems become no longer necessary.
The modeling results for wheeled cart vehicle are presented for environments with stationary and mobile goal points and obstacles of various forms.
OPTIMIZATION OF VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR SPEED
Effective operation of vehicle is a rather important problem of its motion organization. Depending on the specificity of the solved task and on the qualities of the robot, the operation criteria can be different. When a vehicle is moving in extreme environments or in presence of a counteraction, it becomes very important to minimize the motion time of a vehicle during its motion from an existing point to the final one. The positioning task requires usage of an optimization procedure at the stages of path-planning and path-following.